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You might not be able to pause the active downloads or resume downloads that have failed. Purely electronic circuit elements soon replaced their mechanical and electromechanical equivalents, at the same time that digital calculation replaced analog.

The engineer Tommy Flowers , working at the Post Office Research Station in London in the s, began to explore the possible use of electronics for the telephone exchange. Experimental equipment that he built in went into operation five years later, converting a portion of the telephone exchange network into an electronic data processing system, using thousands of vacuum tubes. The German encryption machine, Enigma , was first attacked with the help of the electro-mechanical bombes which were often run by women.

Colossus was the world’s first electronic digital programmable computer. It had paper-tape input and was capable of being configured to perform a variety of boolean logical operations on its data, but it was not Turing-complete. Colossus Mark I contained 1, thermionic valves tubes , but Mark II with 2, valves, was both five times faster and simpler to operate than Mark I, greatly speeding the decoding process.

Like the Colossus, a “program” on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later. Once a program was written, it had to be mechanically set into the machine with manual resetting of plugs and switches. It combined the high speed of electronics with the ability to be programmed for many complex problems.

It could add or subtract times a second, a thousand times faster than any other machine. It also had modules to multiply, divide, and square root. High speed memory was limited to 20 words about 80 bytes. Built under the direction of John Mauchly and J. The machine was huge, weighing 30 tons, using kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18, vacuum tubes, 1, relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors.

The principle of the modern computer was proposed by Alan Turing in his seminal paper, [42] On Computable Numbers. Turing proposed a simple device that he called “Universal Computing machine” and that is now known as a universal Turing machine.

He proved that such a machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by executing instructions program stored on tape, allowing the machine to be programmable. The fundamental concept of Turing’s design is the stored program , where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to this paper. Except for the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern computers are said to be Turing-complete , which is to say, they have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine.

Early computing machines had fixed programs. Changing its function required the re-wiring and re-structuring of the machine. A stored-program computer includes by design an instruction set and can store in memory a set of instructions a program that details the computation. The theoretical basis for the stored-program computer was laid by Alan Turing in his paper.

In , Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory and began work on developing an electronic stored-program digital computer. His report “Proposed Electronic Calculator” was the first specification for such a device. The Manchester Baby was the world’s first stored-program computer. Grace Hopper was the first person to develop a compiler for programming language. The Mark 1 in turn quickly became the prototype for the Ferranti Mark 1 , the world’s first commercially available general-purpose computer.

At least seven of these later machines were delivered between and , one of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam. The LEO I computer became operational in April [49] and ran the world’s first regular routine office computer job. The concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in John Bardeen and Walter Brattain , while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs , built the first working transistor , the point-contact transistor , in , which was followed by Shockley’s bipolar junction transistor in Compared to vacuum tubes, transistors have many advantages: they are smaller, and require less power than vacuum tubes, so give off less heat.

Junction transistors were much more reliable than vacuum tubes and had longer, indefinite, service life. Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relatively compact space. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications.

At the University of Manchester , a team under the leadership of Tom Kilburn designed and built a machine using the newly developed transistors instead of valves. However, the machine did make use of valves to generate its kHz clock waveforms and in the circuitry to read and write on its magnetic drum memory , so it was not the first completely transistorized computer. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in The next great advance in computing power came with the advent of the integrated circuit IC.

The idea of the integrated circuit was first conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the Ministry of Defence , Geoffrey W.

Dummer presented the first public description of an integrated circuit at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.

Noyce also came up with his own idea of an integrated circuit half a year later than Kilby. Produced at Fairchild Semiconductor, it was made of silicon , whereas Kilby’s chip was made of germanium. Noyce’s monolithic IC was fabricated using the planar process , developed by his colleague Jean Hoerni in early In turn, the planar process was based on Mohamed M.

Atalla’s work on semiconductor surface passivation by silicon dioxide in the late s. The development of the MOS integrated circuit led to the invention of the microprocessor , [84] [85] and heralded an explosion in the commercial and personal use of computers. While the subject of exactly which device was the first microprocessor is contentious, partly due to lack of agreement on the exact definition of the term “microprocessor”, it is largely undisputed that the first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel , [86] designed and realized by Federico Faggin with his silicon-gate MOS IC technology, [84] along with Ted Hoff , Masatoshi Shima and Stanley Mazor at Intel.

System on a Chip SoCs are complete computers on a microchip or chip the size of a coin. If not integrated, the RAM is usually placed directly above known as Package on package or below on the opposite side of the circuit board the SoC, and the flash memory is usually placed right next to the SoC, this all done to improve data transfer speeds, as the data signals don’t have to travel long distances.

Since ENIAC in , computers have advanced enormously, with modern SoCs Such as the Snapdragon being the size of a coin while also being hundreds of thousands of times more powerful than ENIAC, integrating billions of transistors, and consuming only a few watts of power.

The first mobile computers were heavy and ran from mains power. The 50 lb 23 kg IBM was an early example. Later portables such as the Osborne 1 and Compaq Portable were considerably lighter but still needed to be plugged in. The first laptops , such as the Grid Compass , removed this requirement by incorporating batteries — and with the continued miniaturization of computing resources and advancements in portable battery life, portable computers grew in popularity in the s.

These smartphones and tablets run on a variety of operating systems and recently became the dominant computing device on the market. The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible physical objects. Circuits , computer chips, graphic cards, sound cards, memory RAM , motherboard, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and “mice” input devices are all hardware. These parts are interconnected by buses , often made of groups of wires.

Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit binary digit of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a “1”, and when off it represents a “0” in positive logic representation. The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.

When unprocessed data is sent to the computer with the help of input devices, the data is processed and sent to output devices. The input devices may be hand-operated or automated. The act of processing is mainly regulated by the CPU. Some examples of input devices are:. The means through which computer gives output are known as output devices. Some examples of output devices are:. The control unit often called a control system or central controller manages the computer’s various components; it reads and interprets decodes the program instructions, transforming them into control signals that activate other parts of the computer.

A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter , a special memory cell a register that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from. The control system’s function is as follows— this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU:.

Since the program counter is conceptually just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Adding to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place locations further down the program. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as “jumps” and allow for loops instructions that are repeated by the computer and often conditional instruction execution both examples of control flow.

The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program , and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer , which runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen.

Early CPUs were composed of many separate components. Since the s, CPUs have typically been constructed on a single MOS integrated circuit chip called a microprocessor.

The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic. Some can operate only on whole numbers integers while others use floating point to represent real numbers , albeit with limited precision. However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform.

Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. An ALU may also compare numbers and return Boolean truth values true or false depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other “is 64 greater than 65? These can be useful for creating complicated conditional statements and processing Boolean logic.

Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs, allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously. A computer’s memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered “address” and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to “put the number into the cell numbered ” or to “add the number that is in cell to the number that is in cell and put the answer into cell Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease.

Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software’s responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers. In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits called a byte. To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used typically, two, four or eight. When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two’s complement notation.

Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically.

Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area.

There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units greatly increases the computer’s speed. ROM is typically used to store the computer’s initial start-up instructions.

In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely. In embedded computers , which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware , because it is notionally more like hardware than software.

Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary. In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories , which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer’s part.

Hard disk drives , floppy disk drives and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics.

A era flat screen display contains its own computer circuitry. While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. This is achieved by multitasking i. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later.

If several programs are running “at the same time”. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception, it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant.

This method of multitasking is sometimes termed “time-sharing” since each program is allocated a “slice” of time in turn. Before the era of inexpensive computers, the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard, then it will not take a “time slice” until the event it is waiting for has occurred.

This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run simultaneously without unacceptable speed loss.

Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed in only large and powerful machines such as supercomputers , mainframe computers and servers.

Multiprocessor and multi-core multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit personal and laptop computers are now widely available, and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result.

Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general-purpose computers. Such designs tend to be useful for only specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation , graphics rendering , and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called ” embarrassingly parallel ” tasks.

Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. Software is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.

Computer software includes computer programs , libraries and related non-executable data , such as online documentation or digital media. It is often divided into system software and application software Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended for general purpose, others useful for only highly specialized applications.

The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. That is to say that some type of instructions the program can be given to the computer, and it will process them. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language. In practical terms, a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions, as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example.

A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second gigaflops and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write, and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors. This section applies to most common RAM machine —based computers.

In most cases, computer instructions are simple: add one number to another, move some data from one location to another, send a message to some external device, etc.

These instructions are read from the computer’s memory and are generally carried out executed in the order they were given. However, there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. These are called “jump” instructions or branches. Furthermore, jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event.

Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that “remembers” the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction. Program execution might be likened to reading a book. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence, they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest.

Similarly, a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention. Comparatively, a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses.

But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1, would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time, with a near certainty of making a mistake. On the other hand, a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. The following example is written in the MIPS assembly language :. Once told to run this program, the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention.

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